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Chemistry Methods: What is Gravimetric Analysis?

Quantitative analysis, or the accurate determination of quantities of a substance present, can be divided into two very general categories – wet test methods and instrumental methods. Wet test methods can be subdivided into categories, including volumetric analysis and gravimetric analysis. The former attains results through the use of volume measurements, as in titration. Gravimetric analysis uses the properties of mass and molecular weight, and usually requires the conversion of a soluble substance into an insoluble one. Which of these two methods to use is determined by the analyst, who takes into consideration a number of factors, including ease and economy of procedure, as well as accuracy of results.

To illustrate: an analytical chemist desires to know how much barium chloride (BaCl2) is present in 25 ml. (5 Image139ml. = 1 tsp.) of an aqueous solution. Although it is possible to employ volumetric methods for the determination, gravimetric analysis is simpler in this instance. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is added to the unknown to convert all the chloride into sulfate, according to the reaction BaCl2 + H2SO4 → BaSO4↓ + 2 HCl. Note that the sulfate precipitates or settles out, as the down arrow indicates. Gravimetric analysis provides excellent accuracy in this instance because barium sulfate is completely water insoluble.

Given a 150-ml. beaker containing 15 ml. of barium chloride solution, an analytical chemist estimates it to contain 4 to 7 g. (453.6 grams = 1 lb.) BaCl2 dissolved in pure water. While stirring the solution with a glass stirring-rod, he slowly pours in enough 10% reagent grade sulfuric acid to convert the chloride into sulfate. He pulls the rod out – rinses with deionized water the traces of sulfate remaining on the rod back into the beaker – and prepares for vacuum filtration. Swirling and pouring the contents of the beaker onto the filter paper, and adds the rinsings from the sides of the beaker, as well. Next, the precipitate remaining on the filter paper is rinsed with small portions of deionized water.

Before the filtration process, the unused filter paper was rinsed with deionized water, carefully dried, cooled and weighed accurately, giving 2.0174 g. Now the same filter paper with the BaSO4 precipitate collectevolat2d onto it is placed into the oven and allowed to dry completely, being careful not to lose any of the sulfate product. Removed and cooled, the paper weighs 8.6112 g. Subtracting the weight of the unused paper from this number, gives 6.5938 g BaSO4. The molecular weights of barium sulfate and barium chloride are 233.3896 and 208.2330, respectively, so the amount of BaCl2 that was in the original solution was 6.5938 × (208.2330 ÷ 233.3896) = 5.3881 g – which is well within the range the analytical chemist had anticipated.

Gravimetric analysis affords certain advantages. The volume measurements of volumetric analysis are subject to temperature fluctuation, whereas mass does not vary with temperature. Losses are generally more likely to occur if volumetric methods are employed. In addition, a precipitate may be limited to one chemical substance that is known – in this instance, barium sulfate – while it can be harder to be certain of substance identity in a volumetric analysis. 

OxyElite Pro: Is This Fat Burner Safe?

Thermogenic supplements are notorious for being unsafe, which brings up this question: Is OxyElite Pro also unsafe? True, it has all the markings of a typical thermogenic supplement, a phrase used to describe a supplement that increases the metabolism. Naturally, this supplement is loaded with ingredients you can’t pronounce and copious amounts of caffeine, which may explain why people are concerned that OxyElite Pro is unsafe. Let’s review this supplement’s safety profile.

So How Safe is OxyElite Pro?oxyelite-pro

To review the safety of this supplement, we’ll need to look at its formula. Here are the most concerning ingredients in OxyElite Pro:

Rauwolfia canescens: The name is tricky, but this plant is a close cousin of yohimbe, which has been purported to contain thermogenic activity. Current scientific data shows that this plant works as an anti-hypertensive agent, which can help reduce high blood pressure.

With that in mind, people who are currently taking anti-hypertensive drugs should not use this supplement without a doctor’s approval. This is because rauwolfia canescens may exacerbate the effects of these drugs. People who have general blood pressure problems should also speak with their local healthcare provider prior to taking OxyElite Pro. Safety rating: C.

Caffeine: With 100 milligrams of caffeine per serving, OxyElite Pro could either be safOxyELITEPro_suppfacts_directions_warnings1e or unsafe for caffeine-sensitive people. One serving isn’t likely to be dangerous, but taking three servings–the recommended maximum amount–may cause discernible effects on your anxiety, hydration levels, or your heart. According to, caffeine may also worsen osteoporosis or low bone density, especially in concentrations exceeding 300 milligrams per day. This product could be a safety issue for people with an anxiety disorder, dehyration, or heart problems worsened by caffeine intake.

Other side effects of this drug may include:

  • Diuresis
  • Insomnia
  • Irritation of the stomach lining
  • Increased heart rate
  • Nervousness

Caffeine may also interfere with the efficacy of several drugs, including dipyridamole, lithium, anti-depressants, pentobarbital, and phenylpropanolamine. Safety rating: Coxyelite_pro_new_and_old

Other concerns: Most of OxyElite Pro’s ingredients have never been properly tested for its safety, especially its effects when consumed orally. Good news, however: there are few allergens in this supplement. Vegetarians and vegans should take note that OxyElite Pro contains gelatin, an animal-derived substance.

Overall, OxyElite’s safety is average at best, and may adversely affect the heart or the central nervous system. This isn’t an ideal supplement for people with certain heart conditions or anxiety disorders.


Neopets: Beginners Guide to Habitarium

Habitarium, like Petpet Park, is a game within the game of Neopets. You control Petpetpets and help them to build a society. The best part is when your Petpetpets level, your main Neopets account is credited Neopoints to spend! I have played a few levels and it is no paltry sum either. When my society reached level 8 I earned over 3000 neopoints.

Neopets Habitarium: Meet the Petpetpets

You have three types of Petpetpets, soldiers, nesters, and workers.

The soldiers are most important, they can fight invading Petpetpets with ease. They can also fix buildings that become damaged.

The workers are great at building things using items they harvest. They can fix buildings. They can fight invading Petpetpets in a pinch. However, they get hurt far quicker then soldiers.

The nesters are your breeders. They help to make your society grow by laying eggs. They too can harvest, build, and fight. They take a lot of damage if they are forced to fight invaders.

Your Petpetpets level from experience gained from gathering resources, building structures, hatching eggs, and collecting gems left from dead Petpetpets and invaders.

Neopets Habitarium: The lay of the landAntilag

Your Petpetpets live on a square piece of land with gathering resources. You will see a water pump, grass, a flower that produces nectar, tree for wood, rock for stone, and mud hole for mud. They have no buildings in their habitat at the start of the game. You will need to purchase your buildings by clicking the shopping bag. You can purchase storage, nest, house, hospital, and barracks.

Neopets Habitarium: Controlling Petpetpets

Simply click and hold when your mouse cursor is centered over the pet you want to control. Drag and drop the pet next to where you want an action performed. If I wanted a Petpetpet to gather wood, I would drag and drop him next to a tree. If my Petpetpet needs sleep, I would drop him in the house. Once you have chosen an activity, the Petpetpet will continue to do it until something else is chosen.

Neopets Habitarium: Know who your Neofriends areMyHabitarium

Your Neofriends are listed on the bottom left of the game screen. Click on their names to interact.

Any Neofriends you have on Neopets can now interact with you in Habitarium. They can repair resources that are destroyed from pest attacks, heal your pets, and repair buildings. They can also send you gifts from their inventory.

The downside is they can also raid you with their Petpetpets. If you get raided buildings/resources can be destroyed, and some Petpetpets may be injured or even die. The person doing the raiding can also have injuries or death to their Petpetpets.

Neopets Habitarium: NC works here too

You can purchase spiffy extras for your habitat with Neocash. These items can only be used in Habitarium. You can paint buildings or Petpetpets and buy decorations for your habitat.

Neopets Habitarium: Basic Strategies

Build a storage, nest, and house as soon as you can. Petpetpets work better toward the same goal. Have them harvest the same resource, and place the storage room right next to them. The buildings can be moved anytime by clicking inventory. You can buy fences to round them up if you have two storage sheds and they insist on the farthest one.

I always have a nester laying an egg. The eggs can be hatched into new Petpetpets, stored in inventory for later, or exchanged for experience points. You have to click, drag and hold the nester away from the nest to check egg progress. It will get bigger. Once the egg is shaking and hopping, it is ready to harvest or hatch. I add more nests as I can afford them, and always have nesters breeding.

You can check the health, rest, and hunger of your Petpetpets by clicking on them once. If your Petpetpet is tired, place in the house so they don’t get sick. There are medicines to buy from the shopping bag that will make them well.

You can buy food from the shopping bag, move the hungry Petpetpets to the food. When they are full, put the food back in your inventory so they don’t over eat. Soldiers are the worst, the snarfing little pigs.

A basic house can hold three Petpetpets. Hovering the mouse over a house will show which Petpets are in there and their status bars. Your buildings can be upgraded if you do not wish to buy more of the same kind.

Always have at least one soldier not sleeping in the house. Two soldiers are far better. Especially if you close the game for the night. Your Neofriends can only attack you while the game is closed.

You can close the game window out, your little guys will keep working. In my opinion, they do a better job in four hours I was sleeping then the four hours I had them in an open window while restocking in another. I just check on them every five to eight hours to heal, feed, and rest them all in turn. Then I make them get back to work.

If you click the magnifying glass, you can check out the progress your friend is making on their Habitarium. That will help you in deciding whether to help fix a building or raid their storage.

The better quality of life you gave a Petpetpet, the better the experience gem it leaves behind when it dies.

Neopets Habitarium is hugely addictive and works well within the regular Neopets framework. As a Premium user, I felt privileged to beta test this game.

Most Memorable “American Idol” Contestants

When “American Idol” debuted back in 2002, who would have thought there was so much undiscovered talent in America? With each season that passes, you remember not only the winner but the one or two others that were just as good or even better than the winner (depending on individual opinions). Some of these contestants even went on to get record deals and become famous in their own rights. Here is a look at the most memorable contestants of “American Idol”.

Constantine Maroulis 61oySiOJ5DL._SY300_
Constantine is from season 4 of “American Idol”. He was memorable for his good looks and his sense of rock style. He didn’t make it to the final two that season, but he sure left an impression on many of the female fans.

Justin Guarini
How could anyone that watched season 1 of “American Idol” not know this guy? He made it to the bottom two with season one winner Kelly Clarkson. He was memorable for his wild hair and the constant rumors that Kelly and him were an item during the show.

Jennifer Hudson
Jennifer was on “American Idol” season 3. She didn’t come even close to the bottom two and was sent packing halfway through the top twelve eliminations. Jennifer went on to hit it big in movies and music. She was memorable for her voice being full of soul.

Michael Lynche
Michael was a contestant on the previous season of “American Idol” (season 9). He gave it his all with all his songs and was saved during elimination night by the judges. “Big Mike” as his friends called him, missed the birth of his daughter so he could pursue his dream of fame with “American Idol”. How much memorable can you get?

Kimberly Caldwell Most-Successful-American-Idol-Contestants
Kimberly was a contestant on season 2 of “American Idol”. While she didn’t make the bottom two, she did make a name for herself on the TV Guide channel doing commentary on (yes, you guessed it!) “American Idol”. She is memorable because she was a sweet girl with a big voice.

Kellie Pickler
This southern belle was a contestant on “American Idol” season 5. She is definitely memorable for her anything but her singing on the show. She was constantly being made fun of her absent-minded ways. She is most memorable for being a little overly sheltered in life and a little on the dense side. She made her big break into country music after being on Idol.

Sanjaya Malakar
Sanjaya was on season 6 of “American Idol”. He was voted off about halfway through the elimination of the top twelve. He is most memorable for the infatuation he ensued in teenage girls nationwide. He gained a little notoriety after Idol.

David Archuleta
David was the runner up of season 7 on “American Idol”. This was a special season since both the bottom two contestants were named David. Archuleta is memorable because he was a sweet kid with an amazing voice who also made the teenage girls go crazy!

Allison Iraheta
Allison was a contestant on season 8 of “American Idol”. While she was just 16 years old, this girl could rock it out! She is most memorable for her wicked crazy style and her awesome rocky voice. She is one who will be stamped in your memory throughout the seasons to come.

healthy living-1

In the hustle-bustle of the fast moving world it is true that most of us are battling greater issues than we once considered. Depression, chronic diseases, obesity, cancer is just a portion of them all. Here are a few tips and tricks to keep yourself younger and reduce your biological age by many years.

The benefits of sitting on a place and concentrating on a single thing is immense, statistics have shown people who meditate to have better emotional stability and more focus in life. Whether you want to follow the Zen way of meditation or the Indian way, all you need to do is just begin. A lot of beginners seem to hit what experienced meditators call as a distractive wall, do not worry, distraction is bound to happen and you need not get all anxious over this. All you need to do is bring back the focus and continue. Within time you will master the art and get a balanced mental control and once you achieve that, most of your problems will disappear.

People have all sorts of excuses when it comes to following an exercise regime for as short as 10 minutes in their day. Exercising increases oxygen and blood circulation and also controls stress levels. Incorporating fun ways of exercise make sure that you burn calories along with having a little fun and engaging in a group. If you still find exercising as a waste of time, you can try alternate forms of getting your body worked up like taking the stairs or walking to the nearby grocery story, anything that gets your heart rate up.

Sleep well
In order to give your body time to recover, you need to sleep for atleast 7 hours. This is because most of your damaged cells repair themselves during sleep and rest is an important part of a balanced physiological existence. Often, people tend to take an all-nighter or go off days without sleeping and run their bodies on caffeine, once in a while is fine, but if this is more regular, you need to stop immediately. Your body is not a machine and your productivity levels will drop eventually.

Now this goes without saying, in order to live a healthy lifestyle minus all the diseases and issues, you need to take control of what you eat. If this seems difficult to you, try taking small-small steps. Start with cutting down on all fried food, move onto elimination of unhealthy sugary drinks and so on. Within no time you will notice that you are a changed person. Making informed decisions will allow you to take control over your life as you start controlling what you consume by taking in the right amount of protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibers, supplementing it with proper vitamins and minerals.

Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine has always been the all time favorite. Among the many cooking methods they use are boiling, stewing, braising, frying, steaming, crisping, baking, and simmering Cruise through the nearby mall, and it’s likely dotted with Chinese takeout joints peddling plastic-wrapped fortune cookies and all-night delivery.
Chinese take outs is generally incorporated in Chinese restaurants all across the globe.
An oyster pail is most commonly currently in use by American  restaurants primarily throughout the United States, to package hot or cold take-out food.
Few of the most famous appetizers purchased are:

Egg Rolls
egg rolls are a larger, bulkier version of Spring rolls.  They are normally stuffed with barbecued pork or shrimp -
Crab Rangoon
As the name suggest it is crab stuffed wontons deep fried till brown.
Few of the main course dishes offering extensive mouth watering delicacies are:


Although Chinese food is one of the healthiest options available, the restaurants which are not authentic, prepare their menu with saturated fat and highly fatty meat which Is a rising concern for obesity and fat-related diseases including cardio-risks and short life-span.
One says that the low cost nature of many of the dishes (little meat, lots of rice, lots of noodles and lots of vegetables) , convenient, wide variety of food and the fact that you can find a Chinese restaurant in any corner of the world makes the Chinese takeaways market dominant in the takeaway industry. Even leaving behind other famous delicacies world wide incuding THAI,INDIAN CURRY and ITALIAN.

One of the strengths of global Chinese cuisine is that it adapts itself almost effortlessly to local tastes.
Forget the deep fried, heavily spicy noodles and red meat there are even varieties of options for those with a sweet tooth including haw flakes, sesame candies, red bean mocha, bing, gao.
In most dishes in Chinese cuisine, food is prepared in bite-sized pieces, ready for direct pickup and eating with chopsticks. Chinese food is the birthplace for chopsticks which is a must at every take-away corner. The invention of chopsticks reflects the wisdom of Chinese ancient people. A pair of chopsticks, though they look simple, can nip, pick, rip and stir food.


Zen Fine Chinese Cuisine
Richmond, British Columbia
Trey Yuen
Mandeville, La.
Jai Yun
San Francisco
Xi Yan
Singapore and Hong Kong
China Garden
Mumbai, New Delhi, and Kathmandu, Nepal
zhu ni yu kuai-(have fun in Chinese!!)

SO the next time you plan to have a get-together,a date with your lady, or simply dinner with your parents at home, don’t forget to delight the guests purchasing spicy fish in hot sauce and cheng du chicken with chow fun and well some fruit-wine to go with from the nearest Chinese takeaway joint!!


Retire in ease as you chose a SIPP and invest smartly with flexibility!


After years of grinding and sweating it out at your day job to earn and survive, you have finally planned to retire. If you are looking for one of the most tax-efficient ways of saving for retirement, then ‘Self-Invested Personal Pension’ is the way to go. SIPPs are a form of personal pension, and as the name suggests- gives you the complete authority over the type of investment plans you can choose. With such a wider range of options and enhanced flexibility, there are now 750,000 SIPPs in the UK, holding billions of euros in savings.

What kind of ‘Self-Invested Personal Pension’ plans can you look forward to?

1)Commercial land and property


3)Cash deposits

4)Stocks and bonds on UK stock exchange

5)Unlisted shares

6)Endowment policies

7)Government securities

How much will it cost?

There is no single value that can be given in this case, few charge yearly, others monthly, yet others will take a percentage of your investments. You need to be very careful when it comes to this because you are probably not young anymore, and if you decide to spend all your life’s pension savings on a single stock, which may come crashing down just as you plan to retire.

Sometimes there are additional charges like:

1)Changing your investments

2)Investing in property

3)Bank charges

4)Setting up your annuity

5)Set-up fee

6)Income drawdown charges

How do you get paid?

So once the pension collects over time, you can reap the benefits once you hit the age of 55. This is where you will be offered tax exemption on 25% of the amount. You can decide to take the entire amount at once or spread it across as a monthly income source. A lot of users tend to take it in lump sum amounts spread across the years.

How do you access/ choose a SIPP?

With over 150 companies operating SIPPs the number of options are immense, some of the SIPPs are run by experienced financial advisors and SIPP specialists. Most of these SIPPs can be chosen and monitored online, with a click of a button you can check the amount of money you have and where it is invested. Understand that each SIPP provider has different sets of guidelines with some starting with as little as 50 Euro.


What investments should you choose?

This depends on your risk taking attitude and age, it is a well known fact that investing lot of money into long-term equities provides the most effective way to provide a higher amount upon retirement. The one single rule of finance-”Do not put all your eggs into a single basket” should be implied here as well because when you buy a range of funds you reduce the risk associated with the fall down of a single stock/company.


If you are one of those who like to take things under your own control, then these plans are perfect for you. Plethora of options and ease in investing virtually has made this a very good option for pension related investments. It comes with a higher charge than the rest of the personal plans, but this one gives you the maximum buck for your money.